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Archived Information

World Languages
Curriculum Framework
Making Connections

Selected Resources

Organizations:

  • Advocates for Language Learning (ALL), 8816 Churchfield Lane, Laurel, MD, 20708-2466. (Nationwide group of immersion educators; holds an annual fall conference.)
  • African Language Teachers Association (ALTA) Pres. Lioba Moshi, Dept. of Anthropology and Linguistics, Baldwin Hall, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • American Association of School Librarians, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (800)-545-2433
  • American Association of Teachers of Arabic (AATA), Dilworth Parkinson, Exec. Dir., Dept. of Asian and Near East Languages, 4072 JKHB, Brigham Young Univ, Provo, UT 84602
  • American Association of Teachers of French (AATF), 57 E. Armory Ave, Champaign, IL 61820
  • American Association of Teachers of German (AATG), Helen Zimmer-Loew, Exec. Dir., 112 Haddontowne Court #104, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034
  • American Association of Teachers of Italian (AATI), Prof. Giuseppe Battista, FL Dept, Islip Arts Bldg, Suffolk Community College, Selden, NY 11784
  • American Association of Teachers of Spanish & Portuguese (AATSP), James R. Chatham, Exec. Dir., Drawer 6349, Mississippi State, MS 39762-6349
  • American Classical League (ACL) c/o Glenn Knudsvig, Dept. of Classical Studies, University of Michigan, 1009 Green St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
  • American Classical League Teaching Materials and Resource Center, Miami Univ., Oxford, LH 45056 (Latin K-12 materials)
  • American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, (ACTFL) 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801 (914)963-8830
  • American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR), 1776 Massachusetts Ave, N.W., Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202)833-7522 / (ACTR) newsletter: Mr. George W. Morris, Exec. ed., 3109 Yale Blvd., St. Charles, MO 63301-046
  • American Philological Association (APE) c/o William Ziobro, Dept. of Classics, Holy Cross College, Worcester, MA 01610
  • American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA), Pres. E. Lynn Jacobowitz, 8 Musicmaster Court, Silver Spring, MD 20904-6847. TTY: 202-651-5721, fax: 202-651-5741
  • Boston Museum of Fine Arts (workshops, resources for teachers), 465 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA (617)267-9300
  • Canadian Association of Immersion Teachers (CAIT/ACPI), 1815 Promenade Alta Vista, Suite 101, Ottowa, Ontario, Canada K1G3Y6
  • Canadian Film Distribution Center, Feinberg Library, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY 12901, (518)564-2396
  • Casa da Saudade, Tel. (508) 991-6218 Fax. (508) 997-8661
  • Chinese Language Association of Secondary-Elementary Schools (CLASS) c/o East Asian Studies Dept., 211 Jones Hall, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544
  • Chinese Language Teachers Association, Inc. (CLTA), Madeline Chu, Exec. Dir.,
  • Kalamazoo College, 1200 Academy St., Kalamazoo, MI 49006-3295
  • Classical Association of New England (CANE) c/o Allan Wooley, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH 03833
  • Dante Alighiere Society, 41 Hampshire St., Cambridge, MA 02141
  • FACSEA, Service Culturelle de L'Ambassade de France, 972 Fifth Ave, NY, NY 10021
  • Federation of Petanque, USA, 208 RN. Royal Street, Alexandria, VA 22134
  • The Five College Center for East Asian Studies (resource catalogues and library, seminars) 8 College Lane, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (413)585-3751 E-mail: kmasalski@SMITH.SMITH.EDU
  • French Government Tourist Office, 610 Fifth Ave., NY, NY 10020-2452, (212) 757-1125
  • French Library (Bibliothèque Française), 53 Marlboro St., Boston, MA 02138 (617) 266-4351
  • Goethe Institute, 170 Beacon St., Boston, MA (617) 262-6050 (also one in NYC)
  • Greater Boston World Languages Collaborative, c/o Alice Dawn, Pine Manor College, 400 Heath St., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167-2332
  • Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard Univ., 1737 Cambridge St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 495-4055
  • The Japan Foundation Language Center, 2425 W. Olympic Blvd., Suite 650 E, Santa Monica, CA 90404
  • Massachusetts Association for Bilingual Education (MABE) PO Box 35615, Brighton, MA 02135
  • Mass. Chapter of American Sign Language Teachers Association (Mass. ASLTA), Pres. Nancy V. Becker, 22 Grove Place, Unit 27, Winchester MA 01890, tty: 617-729-9458, fax: 617-729-5154.
  • Massachusetts Cultural Council, 120 Boylston St., Boston, a source of multicultural programming.
  • Mass. Dept. of Education, 75 Pleasant St., Malden, MA 02148 (781) 338-3000
  • Massachusetts Foreign Language Association (MaFLA) c/o Patrick J. Loconto, 182 Marcy St., Southbridge, MA 01550. Ask MAFLA for current addresses of the following regional Foreign Language associations:
  • Central Mass. Foreign Language Alliance (CMFLA)
  • Classical Association of Massachusetts (CAM)
  • Eastern Mass. Foreign Language Assoc. (EMFLA)
  • Essex County Language Association (ECLAT)
  • Foreign Language Teachers of Western Massachusetts (FLTWM)
  • Massachusetts Italian Teachers Association (MITA)
  • McGill University, Dept. of Islamic Studies & Arabic Language, Montreal, Canada
  • National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, Bilingual Research Center, 141 Clark Kerr Hall, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, 95064
  • National Standards in Foreign Language Education (ACTFL), 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801 (914) 963-8830
  • The New England Multifunctional Resource Center, 144 Wayland Ave., Providence, RI 02906 (401) 274-9548; or through UMass Boston (617) 287-7335 (Provides language and bilingual program design & implementation support.)
  • Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (NCTFL), 200 Twin Oaks Terrace, #16, Burlington, VT 05403
  • Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Quebec Delegation in New England, Public Affairs Attaché, Exchange Place, 19th Floor, Boston, MA 02109 (617)723-3366
  • Rencontre Magazine, Ministère du Conseil Executif, 875, Grande Allée Est, bureau 1.62B, Québec, Québec G1R4Y8 Canada
  • School for International Training, Kipling Rd., Brattleboro, VT 05301
  • Spanish Consulate, 545 Boylston, Boston MA, or New York, NY (materials, lessons, speakers)
  • Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), 1600 Cameron St., Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314
  • The World Affairs Council of Boston, 22 Batterymarch St., Boston, MA 02109 (617) 482-1740
  • The World Affairs Council of Western Massachusetts, P.O. Box 4234, Springfield, 01101-4234 (413) 733-0110
  • Yale University, Dept. of Near Eastern Studies & Arabic Languages, New Haven, CT

Community service learning:

  • Lincoln Filene Center (Community Service Learning Program), Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. (617)627-3858
  • Mass. National and Community Service Commission, c/o MYSA, 87 Summer St., 4th floor, Boston, MA 02110 (617) 542-2544

Exchange and travel programs:

  • Advisory List of International Educational Travel & Exchange Programs (1994); by the Council on Standards for International Educational travel (CSIET) 3 Loudoun St. S.E., Leesburg, VA 22075 (an annual publication)
  • American Field Service (AFS), 32 Hampden St., Springfield, MA 01103 (800)876-2377
  • Asociación Cultural Española, 294 Washington St., Boston, MA 02108-4674
  • LEX America (Institute for Language, Experience, Experiment, and Exchange), 68 Leonard St., Belmont, MA 02178
  • School Partners Abroad, Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE), 205 E. 42nd St., NY, NY 10017-5706 (212) 661-1414
  • World Learning, Inc., Brattleboro, VT
  • Youth For Understanding (YFU) International Exchange, 3501 Newark St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20016-3199 (800) 424-3691

FLES program research, design and implementation:

  • Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.
  • Curtain, H. and Pesola, C.A.B. Languages and Children--Making the Match. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 2nd ed, 1994
  • FLESNEWS, (National Network for Early Language Learning, NNELL)
  • Lipton, Gladys. "What is FLES Methodology?: an Overview" in Hispania, Dec. 1994. (AATSP publication)
  • Lipton, Gladys. Practical Handbook to Elementary Foreign Language Programs (FLES). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co., 1988
  • Met, Myriam. "Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through
  • Language," Foreign Language Annals, 24, no. 4, 1991.
  • Müller, Kurt E. (ed.) Languages in Elementary Schools. NY: The American Forum, 1989
  • Müller, K.E. (ed.) and Rosemarie Benya, (comp.) Children and Languages: Research, Practice, and Rationale for the early grades. NY: The American Forum, 1988
  • National FLES Institute, Univ. of Maryland. Baltimore, MD 21228 / e-mail: glipton@mcimail.com
  • Rhodes, N. and Oxford, R. A National Profile of Foreign Language Instruction at the Elementary and Secondary School Levels, 1987

Inclusive classrooms:

  • Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1994.
  • Banks, Jeri. All of Us Together: the Story of Inclusion at the Kinzle School. Gallaudet University Bookstore, 800 Florida Ave. NE., Washington, D.C. 20003-3695; (800) 451-1073
  • Caine & Caine: Brain based learning: Making Connections. [TBD:get rest of info]
  • Glasser, William, M.D. The Quality School: Managing Students Without Coercion. NY: Harper Collins, 1992.
  • Glasser, William, M.D. The Quality School Teacher. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.
  • Harmin, Merrill. Inspiring Active Learning: A Handbook for Teachers. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1994.
  • Howe, Harold. Thinking About Our Kids: An Agenda for American Education. NY: The Free Press, 1993.
  • Stainback, Susan, and Wm. Stainback. Curriculum Considerations in Inclusive
  • Classrooms: Facilitating Learning for All Students. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1992.
  • Villa, Richard, A. et al. Restructuring for Caring & Effective Education. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1992.

Internet Resources

View HTML Page
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
View External Link
Yamada Language Center, University of Oregon
Font Archives
Teaching Resources (includes language specific teaching resource sites)
View External Link
Computer Assisted Language Learning, Ohio University
Language specific resources for learners and teachers
News sources from around the world
Special projects by language learners and teachers
Dictionaries
Testing theory and practices
Internet resource listings
Professional associations
Linguistics for language teachers
Employment resources for language teachers
Museums
Travel
View External Link
Less Commonly Taught Languages, University of Minnesota
Celtic Languages
Chinese Languages
Hindi
Nordic
Polish
View External Link
Yahoo - Linguistics and Languages, YAHOO
Languages
Journals
Institutes
Mailing lists on the Internet
Translators and Interpreters

Multilingualism

(In addition to the major publishers, the following are some lesser known sources of diverse authentic literature.)

  • Alternative Publishing Group, Menlo Park, CA. (800) 447-2226. (Multicult. Instruction)
  • Aramco Magazine, a publication of Aramco and Saudi Arabian Embassy. Aramco: UN Plaza, NY NY. Saudi Arabian Embassy: Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D.C.
  • Asian American Books, 1994 Catalogue: JACP Inc., 234 Main St., PO Box 1587, San Mateo, CA 94401 (415) 343-9408 or (800) 874-2242
  • Attanasio & Assoc. 78-15 Metropolitan Ave., Middle Village, NY 11379
  • Casa da Saudade, 59 Crapo St., New Bedford, MA 02740 (Portuguese library: abundance of materials)
  • Cheng & Tsui Company: catalogue of Asian materials, books, software, films, etc., 25 West Street, Boston, MA 02111 (617) 426-6074
  • Chinese Culture Connection, 62 Oakland Rd., Reading, MA 01867 (617) 944-7469, for speakers, story tellers, craft workshops, slide shows, etc.
  • Curriculum Study Guide: Italian-Americans: looking back, moving forward. NY State Education Dept., Publication Sales Desk, Rm. 212, Education Bldg. Annex, Albany, NY 12234
  • Gallaudet Univ. Bookstore, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20003-3695, (800) 451-1073: Kathee M. Christensen and Gilbert L. Delgado, Multicultural Issues in Deafness.
  • Good Year Books, Glenview, IL (800) 628-4480 (Ancient and Living Cultures Series)
  • Growing up Asian American (anthol.). NY: William Morrow & Co. (800) 237-0657
  • Hampton-Brown Books, P.O. Box 223220, Carmel, CA 93922 (800) 333-3510
  • Highsmith Press, Fort Atkinson, WI (800) 558-2110 Guide to Multicultural Resources
  • Intercultural Press, PO Box 700, Yarmouth, ME 04096
  • Five college Center for East Asian Studies. 8 College Lane, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (413) 585-3751. Japan Resource Catalog: New England Program for Teaching About Japan. and China & Korea Resource Catalogue (see resource listings in appendices of these publications for more.
  • Longman Publishing Group, 10 Bank St. White Plains, NY 10606-1951
  • Many Cultures Publishing, San Francisco, CA 94103 (800)484-4173, ext. 1073
  • Modern: the Multicultural Video Collection, 515 Madison Ave., Suite 500, NY, NY 10022 (800) 443-7393
  • Multicultural Distributing Center, 800 N. Grand Ave., Covina, CA 91724
  • Multicultural/multiethnic lit. reference source list. Violet J. Harris, Univ. of IL, 1993.
  • People of the World (poster) Anatomical Chart Co, Skokie, IL (800) 621-7500
  • Prentice Hall, DesMoines, IA (800) 288-4745. (Multicult. Activities K-3)
  • Santillana Pub. Co, Inc. 901 W. Walnut St. Compton, CA 90220 ( 800) 245-8584
  • Scholastic, Inc. Jefferson City, MO (800) 325-6149 (Multicultural Literature)
  • Teaching Tolerance, (periodical) 400 Washington Ave, Montgomery, AL 36104.

Classroom ideas:

  • Allen, Virginia French. Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1983.
  • Celce-Murcia, Marianne, and Sharol Hilles. Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1988.
  • Collie, J. and S. Slater. Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: CUPress, 1987.
  • Gallaudet Univ. Bookstore, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20003-3695,
  • (800) 451-1073, for the following (and other) ASL materials:
  • Behan, B. & J. Dennis: My ABC Signs of Animal Friends; Signs for Me.
  • Newby, Robert: Sleeping Beauty; King Midas.
  • Greene, L. and E. Dicker, Sign-Me-Fine.
  • Shroyer, S. and J. Kimmel: Secret Signing: A Sign Language Activity Book.
  • Miller, Ralph, et al.: Sign Language Coloring Books
  • Lindstromberg, S. The Recipe Book: Practical ideas for the language classroom. Gr. Brit.: Longman (Pilgrims), 1990.
  • Marzano, Robert J. A Different Kind of Classroom; Teaching with the Dimensions of Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1992.
  • Marzano, Robert J., D. Pickering and J. McTighe. Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1993.
  • Milord, Susan, Hands Around the World. Williamson Pub. Co, Charlotte, VT, 05445
  • Pattison, P. Developing Communication Skills. Cambridge: CUPress, 1987.
  • Raimes, A. Techniques in Teaching Writing. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press, 1983.
  • Rinvolucri, M. Grammar Games: Cognitive, Affective and Drama Activities for EFL Students. Cambridge: CUPress, 1984.
  • Sadow, Stephen A. Idea Bank: Creative Activities for the Language Class. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc., 1982.
  • Seelye, H. Ned, Teaching Culture. National Textbook Co., 1994.
  • Sion, Christopher. Recipes for Tired Teachers: Well-Seasons Activities for the ESOL Classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1985.
  • Stempleski, S. and B. Tomalin. Video in Action: Recipes for using video in language teaching. UK: Prentice Hall Int., 1990.
  • Tomalin, B. & S. Stempleski. Cultural Awareness. Oxford Univ. Press (Resource books for teachers), 1993.
  • Ur, P. Teaching Listening Comprehension. Cambridge: CUPress, 1984.
  • Ur, P. and Wright, A. Five Minute Activities: A Resource Book. Cambridge: CUPress, 1992.
  • Yorkey, Richard. Talk-A-Tivities: Problem Solving and Puzzles for Pairs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Col, 1985.

Research, theory & practice:

  • ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. (Publishes one volume of articles yearly, on a chosen theme.) Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.
  • Allwright, D. & K. Bailey. Focus on the Language Classroom: An introduction to classroom research for language teachers. NY: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.
  • Barnett, M. More than Meets the Eye: Foreign Language Reading, Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: CAL & Prentice Hall, 1989.
  • Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of Second Language Learning and Teaching. 3rd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents, 1994.
  • Cook, Vivian. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold, 1991.
  • Crookall, D. & R. Oxford. Simulation, Gaming, and Language Learning. NY: Newbury House, 1990.
  • Ellis, R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985.
  • Harmer, J. Teaching and Learning Grammar. NY: Longman, Inc. 1989.
  • Heineman Publishers, 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801 (see catalogue)
  • Kramsch, C. Context & Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
  • Krashen, Stephen, and Tracy Terrell, The Natural Approach, Oxford Univ. Press, 198[]
  • Lapkin, Sharon, with Swain, M., and Argue, V. "French Immersion: The Trial Balloon that Flew," Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Ontario, Canada, 1983.
  • Lee, James F. & Bill Van Patten. Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen. McGraw Hill, 1995.
  • Nunan, D. Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.
  • Nunan, D. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.
  • Omaggio, A.C. Teaching Language in Context. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 1993.
  • Oxford, R. L. Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know. NY: Harper Collins, 1990.
  • Richards, J. C. The Language Teaching Matrix. Cambridge: CUPRess, 1990.
  • Shrum, J. & E. Glisan. Teacher's Handbook: Contextualized Language Instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1994.
  • The following titles are available at Gallaudet Univ. Bookstore, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20003-3695, (800) 451-1073:
    • ASL in Schools and Curriculum.
    • Jacobs, Leo M. A Deaf Adult Speaks Out.
    • Lane, Harlan. The Mask of Benevolence Disabling the Deaf Community.
    • Padden, Carol and Tom Humphries. Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture.
    • Wilcox, Sherman. American Deaf Culture.

Technology in the WL classroom:

  • Athlestan, 2476 Bolsover, Suite 464, Houston, TX, 77005 (an organization specializing in WL and ESL software and books related to computer-aided language learning.)
  • Computer-Assisted Language Learning & Instruction Consortium (CALICO), Frank L. Borchardt, Exec. Dir., 014 Language Bldg., Duke University, Durham, NC 27706
  • Facets Video (Italian video materials), 1517 W. Fullerton, Chicago, IL 02141
  • Interactive Hypercard: for suggestions on the use of hypercard in the World Languages Classroom (especially, with deaf learners, for teaching reading and vocabulary), contact: Peter de Villiers, Psychology Dept., Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063
  • Massachusetts Software Council, Inc. The Switched-On Classroom: a Technology
  • Planning Guide for Public Schools in Massachusetts. 1994.
  • Technology and Language Learning Yearbook, Athelstan, PO Box 8025, La Jolla, CA 92038-8025
  • Video: Books on Videotape, signed in ASL: Very Special Arts, Boston, MA 2 Boylston St., 2nd floor, Boston, 02116 (617) 350-7713 / TDD or fax: (617) 482-4298
  • Videos: PICS/The Project for International Communication Studies, University of Iowa, 270 International Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1802 (Catalogue of authentic foreign videos, and free booklet entitled PICS videoguidelines.)
  • Video Letter from Japan, The Asia Society, Department AS, Box 40, Vernon, NJ 07462
  • Video: Quality Bilingual Education: Portraits of Success. Mass. Coalition of Bilingual Education, Hope, Inc., 165 Brookside Ave. Extension, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130
  • WGBH Center for Accessible Media, Mardi Loeterman, dir. research, 125 Western Ave, Boston, MA 02134, for Personal Captioning, ASL video and software

Etymological References

  • Asian languages dictionaries: See Cheng & Tsui Col Catalogue (617) 426-6074 or for Japanese dictionaries, kanji guide, idiomatic dictionary KODANSHA, (800) 788-6262
  • Bloch, Oscar, & W. VonWartburg. Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue française. Presses Universitaires de France; Paris, 1960.
  • Corominas, Joan. Diccionario Crìtico Etimológico de la lengua castellana. Berne, Switz., 1954.
  • Fombrun, Odette Roy. Les mots nouveaux depuis 1985.
  • Monlau, Pedro Felipe. Diccionario Etimológico de la lengua castellana. Buenos Aires, 1941.
  • Oliviere, Dante. Dizionario Etimologico Italiano. Casa Editrice Ceschina, Milano, 1961.

Endnotes

  1. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Foreign Language Survey, 1994.
  2. Two statutes in Massachusetts pertain to American Sign Language (ASL) in the schools: MGL Chapter 71 [[section]] 2B (1989), An Act Relative to the Teaching of ASL in Public Schools, states: In all public elementary and secondary schools, American Sign Language shall be recognized as a standard, independent language with its own grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural heritage. Courses in ASL may be taught for the purpose of contributing to a greater understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of the language, and to encourage and enable increased interaction between hearing persons and deaf and hard of hearing persons in society. School committees may credit such courses toward satisfaction of foreign language requirements. Another law, MGL Chapter 15A [[section]] 9A (1993) similarly stipulates college credit for ASL courses.
  3. Sources for the historical background included oral histories from several Massachusetts educators, as well as: Atkinson, Carroll, & Eugene T. Maleska, The Story of Education, Phila. and NY, Chilton Co., 1962.
  4. Striving for Success, A Report of the Bilingual Education Commission of the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, December, 1994, 25.
  5. Curtain, Helena, Eric Digest, Dec., 1990 (excerpted from An Early Start: Resources for Elementary School Foreign Language, 1991.
  6. Curtain, Helena, and Pesola, Carol Ann Bjornstad, Languages and Children -- Making the Match, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1988.
  7. Heilenman, L. And I. Kaplan, "Proficiency in Practice: The Foreign Language Curriculum, in Foreign Language Proficiency in the Classroom and Beyond, National Textbook Co., Lincolnwood, IL, 1988.
  8. These include: The National Association of Elementary School Principals, (1987), The National Governors' Association, (1989); and The National Council of State Supervisors of Foreign Languages in a joint statement with the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, (1990).
  9. Curtain, op cit., cites Carpenter & Torney, 1974, in Markun, (Ed.) Childhood and intercultural education, pp. 14-23.
  10. The work of two groups was enormously helpful in the creation of this proficiency levels chart and in the writing of the learning standards. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages' (ACTFL) proficiency descriptions (1986) and its ongoing National Standards Project, and the New England area Articulation and Achievement Project's PLOF (Provisional Learning Outcomes Framework) were indispensible resources. See resource section for bibliographical information.
  11. Another type of program at the elementary level is called FLEX (Foreign Language Exploration). FLEX programs are usually self-contained, short-term programs (from three weeks to one year) that introduce students to one or more languages and cultures. Language proficiency is not a goal of FLEX programs; students learn about the language and culture as they develop an interest in and awareness of the language and culture they are exploring as a basis for future language study.





Last Updated: August 03, 1996
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