Foreign Language Curriculum Frameworks
1 Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century. National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1996.
2 American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 1986.
3 Two statutes in Massachusetts pertain to American Sign Language (ASL) in the schools. MGL Chapter 71, Section 2B (1989), An Act Relative to the Teaching of ASL in Public Schools, states: In all public elementary schools, American Sign Language shall be recognized as a standard, independent language with its own grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural heritage. Courses in ASL may be taught for the purpose of contributing to a greater understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of the language, and to encourage and enable increased interaction between hearing persons and deaf and hard of hearing persons in society. School Committees may credit such courses toward the satisfaction of foreign language requirements. Another law, MGL Chapter 15A, Section 9A (1993) similarly stipulates college credit for ASL courses.
4 Visit Ñandutí web site on Early Foreign Language Learning at www.cal.org/earlylang for annotated bibliographies of research on early language learning. The Ñandutí web site is coordinated by the Center of Applied Linguistics as part of the Improving Foreign Language Instruction project of the Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
5 Latin for Communication: New York State Syllabus (Albany NY: New York State Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, n.d.)
6 These Stages are based on the Language Learning Continuum presented in Claire Jackson et al., Articulation and Achievement: Connecting Standards, Performance, and Assessment in Foreign Language (New York: The College Board, 1996) 15-28.
7 For a summary of research and theory on communication, see Standards for Foreign Language Learning, 32.
8 Edward Sapir, "The Status of Linguistics as a Science," in David Mandelbaum, ed., Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality (Berkeley: University of California, 1958) 160-166.
9 Standards for Classical Language Learning (The American Classical League, 1997) 15.
10 See Helena Curtain and Carol Ann Pesola, Languages and Children - Making the Match 2nd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994), in particular Chapter 1.
11 Gardner, David P., ed., A Nation At Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1983) 26.
12 See Sharon Begley, "Your Child's Brain," Newsweek February 19, 1996; see also Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct (New York: William Morrow, 1994).
13 See Curtain and Pesola, op. cit. They refer to studies such as "Tangible Benefits of the Study of Latin: A Review of Research" (Rudolph Masciantonio, 1977) which asserts that Latin instruction in the elementary grades can lead to significant gains on standardized test performance in basic skills areas. They also cite "Second Language Study and Basic Skills in Louisiana," (Eileen A. Rafferty, Louisiana Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 1986); Rafferty concluded that third, fourth, and fifth grade students who studied French for thirty minutes per day achieved significantly higher scores on the 1985 Basic Skills Language Arts Test than did a similar group of students who did not study French. This study also documented gains in mathematics scores of language students as compared to non-language students.
14 See two studies by the College Board, Princeton, NJ: Articulation and Achievement: Connecting Standards, Performance and Assessment in Foreign Language (1996) and A Challenge to Change: The Language Learning Continuum (1998, in press).
15 Two such studies are described in Mary-Ann Lyman Hager, et. al. In Frank Borchardt and Eleanor Johnson, eds., CALICO Proceedings (Durham, NC: Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium, 1993) 93-97; and in Dorothy Chun and Jan L. Plass, "Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Vocabulary Acquisition," Modern Language Journal 80, 2 (Summer 1996) 183-198.
16 A number of studies are mentioned by Martha Pennington in Chapter 2 of The Computer and the Non-Native Writer (Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc., 1996).
17 In Le Petit Prince distributed by Gallimard (1997), the user can hear the text, read and see animation of the described action, see an album of Antoine de Saint-ExupÉry's life with graphics, sound, and animation. In Versailles (1996), distributed by three organizations: RÉunion des MusÉes Nationaux, Canal + Multimedia, and Cry Interactive Entertainment, the user visits the Palace of Versailles to help solve a mystery. In the process, the user learns about the history of the period by clicking on the screen and asking questions of animated figures.
18 The use of such a program, InterChange (developed and distributed by the Deedless Group, Inc., Austin, TX) is described by Richard Ken in "Restructuring Classroom Interaction with Networked Computers: Effects on Quantity and Characteristics of Language Production," (Modern Language Journal, 79 Number 4, Winter 1995) 457-476. Margaret Beauvois describes a positive experience using InterChange in computer-mediated communication in Michael Bush, ed., Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 1997) 184.
19 A number of studies may be found in Michael Bush, ed., Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 1997) 287-349.