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Archived Information

Health Curriculum Framework
Building Resilience Through Comprehensive Health

January 1996

Health Literacy Strand

Comprehensive health literacy joins together cognitive, physical, and affective skills fundamental to lifelong health:

  • the capacity to obtain, understand, and evaluate health information and services
  • a repertoire of skills in movement and an understanding of their importance for all aspects of lifelong health
  • knowledge of life management skills useful in maintaining a healthy lifestyle now and as a future parent, worker, and citizen

Students learn to read, listen, observe, and think about health information critically, to evaluate information and make reasoned inferences, and to locate and assess help in relation to health and safety. Students need to be able to identify current, reliable information, recognizing the importance of research methodology and hypothesis testing. They need to learn about the tentative nature of many health-related "facts" and fads. Educators need to learn about the latest scientific knowledge and be alert to entirely new health concerns. For instance, while one disease such as small pox may be successfully controlled, a new one such as HIV/AIDS may emerge and present dramatic challenges and crucial decisions for both health professionals and comprehensive health educators.

In comprehensive health, just as in other disciplines, students distinguish fact from opinion, identify stereotyping, and recognize bias. They evaluate health information in terms of accuracy and viewpoint. Students are bombarded daily with health-related messages from multiple sources, in the news and other public media, in advertisements, even in daily interactions with family and friends. The various messages may or may not be relevant, or welcome, and they may even contradict one another. How do students evaluate them -- or even know enough to try?

Knowing how to move efficiently, gracefully, and in ways that are free of strain and injury is another important component of comprehensive health literacy. Students also learn to describe physical changes and sensations and understand the relationship of movement to lifelong health in all its aspects; physical, cognitive, emotional, and social.

Students develop competence in those life management skills that help them maintain and improve their health and the health of their families, workplaces, and communities. They learn to manage resources and use technology. They develop practical skills including those they can use as future parents and workers. Students learn ways to balance current and future demands of school, family, work, and leisure.

For lifelong learners, comprehensive health literacy is an ongoing and dynamic process rather than an end to be achieved.

Learning Standard 1:

Students will understand current concepts of health promotion, disease prevention, and risk assessment in relationship to lifelong growth and development.

  • What is the relationship of health to behavior?
  • What information does one need to assess health risks and make responsible decisions?
  • In what ways is health more than the absence of disease?
  • What is the interrelationship of different aspects of health such as nutrition and fitness?

Grades PreK-4 Standards

1. Compare and contrast problem health habits with healthful habits, identify their effects on individual well-being and possibilities for change.

2. Describe the consequences of using tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs and identify guidelines for using prescription and non-prescription medicines and poisons/toxic substances found in the home.

3. Describe ways of asserting personal needs that are respectful of others.

4. Identify and demonstrate social problem-solving skills.

5. Explain common safety rules and procedures, including effective action to protect and enhance personal safety.

6. Identify and distinguish among communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and chronic health conditions.


1. PreK-2: Students dictate or write and illustrate picture books describing the effects of food choices, rest, physical activity, and talking about feelings. (connects with English Language Arts, Arts)

3-4: After choosing one habit they might like either to change or maintain, students work in groups of three to brainstorm things that might help. Students then make individual action plans that detail possible steps for change.

2. PreK-2: Students sort sample food products, beverages, medicines, and vitamin pills into three categories: Safe to Eat, Not Safe to Eat, and Things I Need to Ask About. Some food products and beverages have labels and others do not. Students give reasons for classifying.

3-4: Interpreting a list of handling precautions from a poison control center, learners identify areas of the body (eyes, skin, lungs, etc.) needing protection when using different types of cleaners, fertilizers, insect and rodent poisons, abrasives, paints, and other toxic substances. Then they graph the body areas in terms of different types of products. (connects with Mathematics)

3. PreK-2: At pauses during a puppet show, students suggest ways that characters might act when making requests of others, confronting hurtful or discriminatory acts, or dealing with routine teasing or provocation. (connects with English Language Arts)

3-4: After reading Atilla the Angry, students identify ways to express personal needs that give others choices.

4. PreK-2: Responding to questions after reading Willie's Not the Hugging Kind, students describe Willie's emotions, identifying how he might communicate effectively and what could be done to help him feel better. (connects with English Language Arts)

3-4: After watching a videotape of students trying to resolve a conflict, learners identify the skills that were used.

5. PreK-2: In response to a teacher's questions about hypothetical situations, students use the concept of good touch/bad touch to interpret characters' actions and identify steps that could be used to ensure personal safety

PreK-4: After brainstorming a list of dangers associated with guns, students identify applicable regulations and safety procedures.

6. PreK-2: Students make a posters showing the different means by which germs (bacteria and viruses) are spread and not spread. (connects with Arts)

3-4: Learners interview people with chronic health conditions and/or read about them in order to understand how they actively contribute to family, friends, school, and community and how such conditions differ from diseases. (connects with English Language Arts, Social Studies)

Grades 5-8 Standards

7. Identify sources of support for maintaining personal health habits and changing problem habits and describe ways these sources promote health and resilience.

8. Identify physical, social, intellectual, and emotional changes associated with puberty and adolescence.

9. Research and describe addiction to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs and methods for intervention and treatment.

10. Identify prevalent adolescent risk behaviors, links among them, and their potential outcomes.

11. Describe effective communication skills for resolving potentially violent conflicts.


7 Students in an exercise club make a presentation to other students describing the ways members help one another to attain health and fitness goals. (connects with Social Studies)

8. Learners research the potential effects of physical changes on athletic performance and participation in sports. (connects with Science and Technology, Social Studies)

9. Working in small groups, learners research health consequences, addictive mechanisms, and social factors associated with repeated use of one of the following: nicotine, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, and inhalants. They then relate their research to current information about intervention and treatment. (connects with Science and Technology, Social Studies)

10a. Students compare Massachusetts and national data on prevalent risk behaviors and outcomes with their own observations and/or surveys of students and/or community health professionals. (connects with Social Studies)

10b. Examining case studies or fiction, students write their observations of links between substance use and dating violence, suicide, HIV infection, depression, sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and eating disorders. (connects with English Language Arts)

11. After role-playing resolving conflict in various situations both with a mediator and without one, students analyze which skills were most useful. (connects with Arts, English Language Arts)

Grades 9-10 Standards

12. Analyze the effects of diseases on community and society.

13. Analyze ways in which research and medical advances have changed how we prevent, diagnose, monitor, and/or treat specific diseases and conditions.

14. Identify the legal and health consequences of child abuse, domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of violence and discuss strategies to prevent and address them.

15. Identify and compare health concerns, health needs, and essential life/resource management skills at various stages of human growth and development.

16. Analyze health-related issues associated with diverse careers and workplaces.


12. Using biographies and/or primary sources such as letters and diaries, learners trace the effects of a particular disease such as tuberculosis on individuals and families in the late 1800s and compare with its effects today.(connects with English Language Arts, Social Studies)

13. In pairs, students interview health providers and/or researchers and report on how clearer understandings of preventive factors and new methods of diagnosis have changed the prevention and treatment of heart disease. (connects with Science and Technology)

14. Students examine the written policies of businesses, schools, and other institutions on sexual harassment and violence and compare them with the current recommendations of the Governor's Council on Domestic and Sexual Violence. (connects with English Language Arts)

15. As a class, students interview health care providers and parents to identify and discuss the influence of genetic factors and behaviors of both parents on the health of their children both before and after birth. (connects with Science and Technology)

16. Working in small groups, students choose a specific industry and report on the roles of regulatory agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and current occupational health regulations including laws relating to workmen's compensation, right to know, and child labor. (connects with Social Studies)

Grades 11-12 Standards

17. Research and discuss the role of protective factors in developing resilience.

18. Research and present examples of how communities respond to health needs of individuals and families.

19. Identify factors that make for effective public health policies, initiatives, and laws.

20. Identify the ways in which scientific advances become incorporated into the prevention and treatment of diseases and health conditions.


17. As a class, students interview parent educators, parent support group leaders, and parents to identify ways in which families find support for parenting challenges and balancing parenting with other demands. (connects with Social Studies)

18. Students interview emergency medical technicians, relief agency personnel, and others about their individual and agency roles in responding to community-wide emergencies or health crises such as natural disasters, fires, terrorism, epidemics, and over-the-counter drug tampering. (connects with Social Studies)

19. Students research, discuss, and write about different viewpoints on the distribution of clean needles to drug addicts and how this relates both to addiction and disease prevention. (connects with Social Studies, Science and Technology)

20. Using a timeline, students chart the stages of development of a new drug or genetic treatment and identify steps used to gain approval by federal agencies. (connects with Science, and Technology, Social Studies)

What this looks like in the classroom/laboratory/physical education setting

  • Three high school students research Lyme disease in Massachusetts. Using the Internet, they obtain current statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They compare these with the reports of researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and the Massachusetts Audubon Society. They use maps and graphs to compare the incidence of the disease in humans with the prevalence of the bacterium in ticks taken from deer mice nesting boxes. They estimate the likelihood of infection from a tick bite, which turns out to be lower than originally expected. In talking with researchers, students learn about the scientific and mathematical techniques used to monitor infectious diseases. The students determine factors that would make an effective statewide advertising campaign about seasonal precautions and early treatment.

Learning Standard 2:

Students will develop individual competence and versatility in movement skills, understand movement concepts, and relate physical activity to lifelong health.

Full health literacy includes being physically literate. Learners develop knowledge about how the body functions and the ability to describe physical changes and sensations. Through participation in developmentally appropriate physical activity, learners move in ways that are precise, efficient, graceful, and free of strain or injury. They also practice moderating physical responses to stress and conflict. Learners experience the relationship of exercise to overall health, apply important social skills and safety knowledge, and integrate learning through movement with other modes of learning.

  • In what ways are movement skills important for health?
  • How can movement skills be developed, evaluated, and improved?
  • How can sports or games best include persons of varying abilities?
  • How does physical activity help in responding to stress?

Grades PreK-4 Standards

1. Use a variety of manipulative (throwing, catching, striking), locomotor (walking, running, skipping, hopping, galloping, sliding, jumping, leaping), and non-locomotor (twisting, balancing, extending) skills.

2. Identify and apply movement concepts including direction, balance, level (high, low, etc.), pathway (straight, curve, zigzag, etc.), range (expansive, narrow, etc.), application of force (sustained, gentle touch, etc.), force absorption (rigid, with bent knees, etc.) to extend versatility and improve performance.

3. Identify and demonstrate responsible personal and social behavior used in physical activity settings.

4. Identify physical changes and feelings that result from participation in a variety of physical activities.


1. PreK-2: Practicing various movement skills in the gym, students travel in different directions using a variety of locomotor patterns and change direction quickly in response to a signal.

3-4: Expanding their repertoire of movement skills, learners vary and combine skills in response to changing conditions and expectations: tossing a ball to a moving partner, throwing or balancing an object while dodging, or moving to different rhythms. (connects with Arts, Mathematics)

2. PreK-2: Pretending to be a train, students travel for several minutes in a group, staying linked to the one in front. Afterwards, they identify movement concepts used to keep the train together at various speeds, along different pathways, and while using various modes of traveling.(connects with Arts, Science and Technology)

3-4: In pairs, students practice throwing a ball at a target. After five attempts, they give their partner a turn. Students observe their partner and use movement concepts to provide feedback about critical elements of throwing. (connects with Science and Technology, Mathematics)

3. PreK-2: In a group, learners brainstorm rules to solve potential playground problems including unsafe use of equipment, lack of respect for personal space, and the need to share.

3-4: Students analyze a videotape of class gymnastics performance, complimenting productive, cooperative, and safe behaviors and making suggestions for improvement.

4. PreK-2: Each learner draws and writes a story about personal likes and dislikes and physical changes associated with participation in a sport or physical activity (connects with Arts, English Language Arts)

3-4: In small groups, students make a poster or create a dramatic presentation about a favorite sport or physical activity relating its fitness benefits with both immediate and short-term physical changes and feelings about participation (connects with Arts)

Grades 5-8 Standards

5. Use combinations of manipulative, locomotor, and non-locomotor skills to develop movement sequences and patterns both individually and with others.

6. Use information from a variety of sources (internal and external) and apply advanced movement concepts and game strategies to guide and improve performance.

7. Identify appropriate exercise guidelines and describe the immediate and long-term health benefits of regular physical activity.

8. Demonstrate understanding and respect for differences among people and identify strategies for inclusion in physical activity settings.


5. Learners create and perform a gymnastics or dance routine that combines traveling, rolling, balancing, and weight transfer into smooth flowing sequences with intentional changes in direction, speed, and flow. (connects with Arts)

6. Working in groups, students take turns playing two-on-two basketball while others observe play. Observers identify and record offensive and defensive strategies used by teams.

7. Learners select an exercise related to one component of physical fitness such as using proper sit-ups to increase endurance and strength of the abdominal muscles or lap swimming to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. They record and graph progress over six weeks. (connects with Mathematics)

8. In teams, students identify and try various ways for players of different abilities to participate fully when team positions are rotated so that each person tries every position.

Grades 9-10 Standards

9. Demonstrate competence (basic skills, strategies, and rules) in many and proficiency in a few movement forms: aquatics, team sports, individual/dual sports, outdoor pursuits, self-defense, dance, gymnastics, and adaptive physical activities.

10. Identify critical elements of movement skills and apply them to achieve competent/proficient performance.

11. Identify and discuss the components of physical fitness and the factors involved in planning and evaluating fitness programs for individuals at different stages of the life cycle.


9. Learners pass the Red Cross intermediate swimming requirements.

10. Analyzing a videotape of a volleyball competition, students identify advanced skills and team strategies.

11. Working in teams, learners interview a cross section of persons of various ages and at least one physically challenged person to determine the relationship of physical, social, cognitive, and emotional factors to personal exercise habits and levels of physical activity.

Grades 11-12 Standards

12. Select and develop proficiency in several movement forms for current and lifetime use and enjoyment.

13. Identify and apply concepts from motor learning and development, sport psychology and sociology, biomechanics, and exercise physiology in order to learn, self-assess, and improve movement skills independently.

14. Identify ways in which physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, social interaction, and the management of life stress.

15. Research and report on levels of physical activity and specific movement skills associated with various careers/workplaces and adult tasks such as household management and parenting.


12. Choosing one movement form such as dance or soccer, students design and write a personal, long-term plan for achieving and maintaining proficiency. They incorporate the feedback of sports or professional organizations, adults, and others proficient in this form. (connects with Social Studies)

13. Learners compare and contrast the teaching of motor skills by different writers/instructors in sports magazines, how-to books, and commercial videotapes, identifying factors that promote and or hinder learning. (connects with Social Studies)

14. In pairs, students interview six persons of various ages to determine what they like and dislike about physical activities and report on in class.

15. After comparing recording methods used in dance notation with those used in time and motion studies in industry, students choose one method and use it to observe and study motion in a workplace setting. (connects with Arts, Social Studies)

What this looks like in the classroom/laboratory/physical education setting

  • In an interdisciplinary project, arts and science and technology students work with the physical educator to learn about the human skeleton. Students are asked to envision their skeletal system moving in sections from their feet to their heads. In response to questions, they think about how the different parts of their bodies are connected, how many and what sorts of bones are in each section, and what their skeleton feels like. Students then draw both frontal and sideways pictures of their skeletons. They also compare their drawings with a model skeleton to learn more about specific areas.
  • As a class project, seventh grade students survey the student body to determine levels of physical activity and preferences for different types of movement. They look at sports, games, and movement activities done individually and with community groups and families. They compare and contrast data for boys and girls and for 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, discussing social and cultural messages that might contribute to decreasing activity levels for some groups of students.

Learning Standard 3

Students will analyze the impact of social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors on health.

Grades PreK-4 Standards

1. Identify ways in which others support personal health and success in school.

2. Describe characteristics of inclusive and supportive social environments (family, friends, team, school, community, etc.).

3. Research and give examples of how prejudice and social stereotypes affect people whoare perceived to be different.

4. Analyze the content of children's television and other media with respect to violence, nutrition, gender stereotypes and other health-related issues.

5. Identify ways in which the health of the natural environment is related to personal and community health.


1. PreK-2: After listing the people in their individual support systems (family, friends, congregations, teachers, etc.) and discussing their influence, students choose one and make a thank you card. (connects with Social Studies, Arts, English Language Arts)

3-4: In small discussion groups, learners compare and contrast the help that children of different ages (e.g., infants, younger children, and peers) need from their families, teachers and other adults in order to stay safe and healthy and succeed in school.

2. PreK-2: After reading stories on friendship, students write and draw pictures on this topic for a display.

3-4: After playing a game or sport, learners identify the factors which encouraged participation, fairness, and good sportsmanship.

3. PreK-2: Students compare personal experiences of discrimination and prejudice with discrimination in stories and discuss the impact of such experiences on emotional, social, mental, and physical health. (connects with English Language Arts)

3-4: Using the Internet, students interview persons with disabilities and advocacy organizations to identify and write about how stereotypes impact individuals and communities.

4 PreK-2: Examining the labels and advertisements on containers for various brands of cereals, yogurt, and other food products, students identify advertising messages and compare these with actual nutritional content. (connects with Science and Technology)

3-4: Using a checklist, learners evaluate violence and gender stereotypes in toy advertisements. (connects with Social Studies)

5. PreK-2: In studying rainforests, learners write sentences and draw pictures showing the different ways its destruction affects human health. (connects with Social Studies)

3-4: Students use a variety of artistic media to depict the potential effects of pollution on human health (connects with Arts)

Grades 5-8 Standards

6. Observe and describe how peer pressure affects health-related behaviors.

7. Identify specific societal and cultural messages that promote healthy and unhealthy behaviors; for each message identify the targeted population, trace its origins, and test the accuracy of its facts.

8. Identify ways in which communities in different cultures support the health of individuals and families.

9. Analyze the influence of violence in the media on violent behaviors.

10. Research and report on environmental influences on health.


6. Students role-play situations that involve peer pressure (e.g., using tobacco or alcohol, acting as if one knows the answers instead of asking for information or help, etc.) and analyze roles of participants and bystanders. (connects with Social Studies)

7. Working in small groups, students analyze advertisements, media images, and verbal messages for promotion of "ideal" body images and examine their roles in the development of eating disorders, use of steroids and other substances, and development of extreme exercise habits. (connects with Social Studies)

8. Students discuss the saying , "It takes a village to raise a child," and explore the importance of extended families and support networks for individual and family health. (The saying is originally from West Africa.) (connects with Social Studies)

9. With an adult family member, students watch a movie or television show and record frequency and types of violence and the age, gender, and race of victims or targets and discuss. (connects with Social Studies)

10. Using the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Water Test kit, student teams identify pollutants in local water sources (ponds, rivers, tap water etc.) and research their health effects. (connects with Science and Technology)

Grades 9-10 Standards

11. Identify economic and environmental factors affecting neighborhood health.

12. Identify the roots of violence and its modes of expression by individuals, communities, and institutions.

13. Research and analyze the effects of urbanization, travel, geography, climate, and other environmental factors on the transmission, prevention, and treatment of diseases.

14. Collect and interpret local, national, and international statistics on a specific disease, health condition, or risk behavior.

15. Investigate the historical influence of social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors on community health.


11. Working in teams, students interview local health department officials and/or health agency personnel to identify neighborhood health concerns such as the placement and content of billboards, access to outdoor recreation facilities, and toxic dumping. (connects with Social Studies)

12. After reading biographies and historical accounts, learners analyze and write about social, cultural, legal and other factors relating to violence against people because of individual background or group status. (connects with Social Studies)

13. Students examine statistical correlations between the rate of urbanization and the spread of HIV/AIDS in several countries. (connects with Social Studies, Mathematics)

14. Learners interpret statistics on teenage pregnancy in relation to social and economic factors and discuss them in class. (connects with Social Studies, Mathematics)

15. With a partner, students interview older individuals in families and/or community about their experiences related to community health and report in class. (connects with Social Studies)

Grades 11-12 Standards

16. Compare prevalent health concerns and promotion initiatives in the United States with those in at least two other parts of the world.

17. Investigate how politics and public opinion have influenced disease prevention and treatment in the past and present.

18. Research and analyze how economic and social factors affect health.

19. Research and analyze different viewpoints about current public safety or disease prevention issues affecting students' lives.


16. Working in small groups, students select a health concern such as sexually transmitted diseases and use their computer to share information with student groups in other countries. They chart the prevalence of different diseases, social factors affecting their spread, and types of treatments. (connects with Social Studies)

17. Students report on current or recent legislative debates about funding for scientific health research. (connects with Social Studies, Science and Technology)

18a. Students interview health care providers and compare different viewpoints on how poverty and unemployment influence health risks, access to services, and early treatment. (connects with Social Studies)

18b. Learners examine and interpret Massachusetts statistics on the numbers of women and single mothers incarcerated for drug-related offenses and correlate with facts and figures on the availability of treatment. (connects with Social Studies, Mathematics)

19a. In teams, students debate issues surrounding drug testing in the school and workplace.

19b. Students research and report on ways in which different Massachusetts towns and school systems have addressed condom availability, and debate the pros and cons of condom availability.

What this looks like in the classroom/laboratory/physical education setting

Mr. Dunwoodie's high school health class studies the issue of access to public buildings in their community. They research both state legislation and the minutes of their town meeting to identify applicable policies and laws. They review newspaper editorials, cartoons, and articles to find examples of attitudes and bias towards people with disabilities. They interview architects, town-planners, and people with disabilities to learn more about related issues.

Learning Standard 4

Students will identify, use, and evaluate health information and resources.

Students identify health information and resources that are current and applicable to their lives. Faced with what often seems like an overwhelming quantity of reports, articles, facts, and figures, students learn to sort out apparent contradictions and identify reliable information. They learn the types of questions to ask when talking with health professionals and providers of services. They become educated consumers who are aware of product safety and truthfulness in packaging.

  • Where can we find out about health services in our community?
  • How can we use technology to access health information?
  • What makes health information reliable?
  • Where can I find information about new health and fitness careers?

Grades PreK-4 Standards

1. Identify school and community health professionals and other helpers and the types of problems with which they can help.

2. Interpret sources of health and safety information including poison and health warning labels, safety checklists, pedestrian and traffic signs and signals, nutrition guidelines, and signs and signals used for fire evacuation and other emergency procedures,.

3. Use consumer information or guidelines to evaluate safety and health aspects of toys, games, and sports equipment.


1. PreK-2: After brainstorming a list of common student health and safety concerns including first aid, crossing the street, family problems, alcoholism, abuse and neglect, playground disputes, food choices, and sports injuries, students connect each concern with names and/or roles of persons who can help. (connects with Social Studies)

3-4: Students prepare anonymous questions for a visiting community health professional based on their prior knowledge of the types of issues and problems generally dealt with by people in this role. After the visitor responds, students evaluate their questions and to whom else they might be addressed. (connects with Social Studies)

2. PreK-2: Students make posters that explain pedestrian, bicycle, roller blade, and motor vehicle traffic rules, safety procedures, and signs (including the use of seatbelts and safety helmets). (connects with Social Studies, Arts)

3-4: Using nutritional guidelines including the USDA food pyramid, a student team plans for and prepares healthy snacks for the week. (connects with Science and Technology)

3. PreK-2: Learners examine toys for safety and health hazards including flammability, breakable features, small pieces that might cause choking, and their effects on play and time with family members. (connects with Science and Technology, Social Studies)

3-4: Students consult consumer magazine articles to develop a checklist of safety features for products such as bicycle helmets, jump ropes, or shin guards, then analyze and chart the relative cost and safety features of various brands.

Grades 5-8 Standards

Continue the PreK-4 Standards and:

4. Evaluate health, safety, and nutritional advice and information.

5. Analyze the validity of product health claims.

6. Identify sources of useful information and help in emergencies.


4. As a class, students interview physicians, nurses, dentists, and other health professionals to identify useful questions to ask when seeking health information and evaluating advice.

5. Learners compare and contrast information on diet control and weight loss from multiple sources including various fitness clubs, exercise machine sales brochures, and publicized diets.

6. Students gather and analyze first aid brochures or posters and lists of emergency and crisis phone numbers from local phone books to write and design an emergency wallet card or phone guide.

Grades 9-10 Standards

Continue the PreK-8 Standards and:

7. Research and evaluate news reports about emerging health research for accuracy and viewpoint.

8. Identify and compare community resources and services available to address a particular health problem.

9. Research and report on a complex health issue as it develops over time, identifying types of resources helpful at various stages.

10. Identify and use criteria to evaluate health research.


7. Selecting a specific health study or medical breakthrough, learners compare and contrast multiple news reports and news briefs from professional publications. (connects with English Language Arts)

8. Learners obtain and chart information on treatment methods, auxiliary services, and costs related to the treatment of alcoholism.

9. Students examine case studies of unintended/ unwanted pregnancies, identifying ways help was or might have been accessed along a chronology from sexual encounters to decision making after pregnancy occurred, and then critique the roles of key players.

10. Examining and comparing several research studies on the effects of exercise, students determine the identity of subjects (age, gender, etc.), how they were selected as treatment or control group members, whether or not those who administered treatment knew to which group the subjects belonged , and if similar results were achieved at other locations. (connects with Science and Technology)

Grades 11-12 Standards

Continue the PreK-10 Standards and:

11. Collect and critique self-help literature on health concerns of young adults from several sources.

12. Demonstrate understanding of the procedures used in health research.

13. Apply research methods such as statistics gathering and analysis and interviewing to a health issue.

14. Analyze the role of government in regulating food and product labeling and advertising claims.

15. Identify and analyze ethical issues in relation to health.


11. Learners select a health issue such as having a parent with cancer, overcoming depression, exploring school and career options, or maintaining healthy friendships. They gather and write an analysis of the usefulness of self-help literature available from agencies, libraries, and advocacy groups.

12. Choosing a recent health study, learners summarize its findings and evaluate them in relationship to other research. (connects with Science and Technology)

13. Learners compare the costs and benefits of different health insurance policies available to young adults. (connects with Mathematics)

14. After choosing a product or product field, students research and write descriptions of the procedures used by government agencies to test for product purity, safety, reliability, and truth in advertising. (connects with Science and Technology)

15. In teams, students debate ethical issues related to health care and advances in medical technology. (connects with Science and Technology)

What this looks like in the classroom/laboratory/physical education setting

  • After collecting brochures from several doctors' offices, health services, and their local hospital, students in Ms. Moore's 7th grade talk about what they like and do not find helpful about each one. They discuss the types of information patients their age and their families generally need to know. After brainstorming a list of desired features and information, students work in groups to create brochures. They share these samples with local physicians and health administrators, learning about area services in return.
  • Looking at 1950s advertisements for fitness equipment, exercise programs, and preparations claiming to insure weight loss and physical vigor, students compare them with advertisements in today's magazines and professional journals. They analyze the reliability of claims and try to determine changing perceptions of fitness and physical health.

Last Updated: January 1, 1996
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