Massachusetts Comprehensive Health Curriculum Framework - October 1999
Disease Prevention and Control
Disease Prevention and Control focuses on factors contributing to the development of chronic, degenerative, and communicable diseases, including genetic and environmental factors. Disease Prevention and Control addresses methods for detection and strategies for prevention of chronic and communicable diseases. Maintaining good health is a topic of importance in Disease Prevention and Control. Because disease prevention and control is integral to health, these elements are also addressed in other specific areas of the Framework.
Study in Disease Prevention and Control conveys the important message that students have a considerable measure of control over their health. The contribution of science and technology/engineering has added greatly to disease prevention and control. Chances of contracting most illnesses can be greatly influenced by students' health-related choices and decisions. While the effects of heredity must be considered, behaviors and decisions also affect the development of such chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, strokes, diabetes, and osteoporosis. The risk factors for these diseases can be detected early in life and are heavily influenced by health-related choices. Instruction in Disease Prevention and Control also includes the skills necessary to act in a supportive yet safe manner toward people with diseases. Topics generally covered in Disease Prevention and Control include: Signs, Causes, and Treatment; Prevention; and Health Maintenance.
PreK-12 Standard 8: Disease Prevention and Control
Students will learn the signs, causes, and treatment of chronic and communicable diseases, and will gain skills related to health promotion, disease prevention, and health maintenance.
Learning Standards: Disease Prevention and Control
8.1 Describe how the body fights germs and disease naturally and with medicines and immunization.
Signs, Causes, and Treatment
8.2 Identify the common symptoms of illness and recognize that being responsible for individual health means alerting caretakers to any symptoms of illness.
8.3 Apply skills to prevent and control the spread of disease, including those that help promote cleanliness (such as correct handwashing, regular bathing, and washing clothes).
8.4 Identify tooth functions and causes of tooth health and decay, and apply proper dental health skills (such as choosing healthy tooth snacks, brushing, flossing).
8.5 Identify ways individuals can reduce risk factors related to communicable and chronic diseases.
8.6 Describe the importance of early detection in preventing the progression of disease.
Signs, Causes, and Treatment
8.7 Explain the need to follow prescribed health care procedures given by parents and health care providers.
8.8 Describe how to demonstrate safe care and concern toward ill and disabled persons in the family, school, and community.
8.9 Discuss how cleanliness and good grooming show consideration for self and others, and ways to promote cleanliness.
8.10 Describe the relationship between overexposure to the sun and skin cancer.
8.11 List the factors contributing to tooth decay, diseases of the mouth, and preventive measures.
8.12 Describe the influence that rest has on physical functioning (recovering from fatigue, restoring energy), personal requirements for sleep, and methods for getting adequate sleep.
8.13 Explain how the immune system functions to prevent and combat disease.
8.14 Identify positive health behaviors that reduce the risk of disease.
8.15 Learn how to use effective physical self-examination procedures and at what age they become necessary.
8.16 Demonstrate how to discuss procedures and test results with health care providers.
Signs, Causes, and Treatment
8.17 Describe the leading causes of death for different age groups, symptoms of common diseases among youth, the importance of early diagnosis, and the need for active involvement in the treatment and management of disease and chronic health problems.
8.18 Analyze the interaction between genetics and disease.
8.19 Explain the prevention and control of common communicable infestations, diseases, and infections.
Selected Examples: Disease Prevention and Control
8.3 Invite the school nurse or school physician to present a program to students about the relationship between hand washing and catching a cold and medicines that may help, including that medicines should only be taken with adult supervision.
8.4 Using a large cardboard model of the mouth with the teeth labeled, students close their eyes and floss with yarn covered with colored chalk. Students open their eyes and see which teeth were and were not missed. Practice until flossing is complete.
8.10 Students observe the characteristics of vegetable skins under a microscope. Place vegetables with and without sunscreen outdoors in the sun and shade. Periodically observe and record the same characteristics. Report the damage the sun has done under these various conditions.
8.15 Using materials provided by the American Cancer Society, students review the proper procedures for self-examination and plot on a calendar regular intervals for examinations.
Interdisciplinary Learning Objectives: Disease Prevention and Control
9-12 8.a. (Law & Policy. Connects with History & Social Science: Geography and Civics & Government)
Analyze the influence of factors (such as social and economic) on the treatment and management of illness.
9-12 8. b. (Law & Policy. Connects with History & Social Science: Civics & Government)
Explain confidentiality laws and individuals' rights to seek medical treatment.
9-12 8.c. (Law & Policy. Connects with History & Social Science: Geography)
Analyze the effects of urbanization, medical advances, politics, and public opinion on the transmission, prevention, and treatment of disease.
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