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# Mathematics Curriculum FrameworkAchieving Mathematical Power - January 1996

## Glossary

Algorithm A set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps, i.e. long division.

Analytic geometry A branch of mathematics in which algebraic procedures are applied to geometry, i.e. coordinate geometry.

Box-and-whisker plot A method for displaying the median, quartiles, and extremes of a set of data, using a number line.

Calculus The mathematics of change and motion. The main concepts of calculus are limits, derivatives, and areas under curves.

Deductive reasoning A system of reasoning based on definitions and premises.

Discrete mathematics The study of mathematical properties of sets and systems that have a countable number of elements.

Fibonacci numbers A sequence of numbers that begins with 1, and each number that follows is the sum of the previous two numbers, i.e. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144.

Function A relation that associates each object in a set with exactly one value.

Inductive reasoning A system of reasoning based on observation and measurement.

Linear equation An equation whose graph is a straight line.

Linear programming A branch of mathematics that uses linear inequalities to solve decision-making problems involving maximums and minimums.

Mathematical structure The framework of mathematics that provides the foundation on which are built the content areas of mathematics.

Matrix, pl. matrices A rectangular array of numbers.

Measure of central tendency The mean, median, and mode of a distribution.

Network Collection of points (vertices), some of which may be connected by edges.

Pascal's triangle A triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number in any row is the sum of the two numbers immediately above it.

Proof A method of constructing a valid argument, using deductive reasoning.

Pythagorean Theorem For any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the measures of the legs equals the square of the measure of the hypotenuse.

Random variable In statistics, a quantity that takes any of a set of values with specified probabilities.

Rational numbers Set of numbers that can be expressed as the quotient of two integers, in which the denominator is not zero.

Real numbers Set of numbers comprised of rational and irrational numbers.

Sample space The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment.

Scatter plot Two sets of data plotted as ordered pairs in the coordinate plane.

Sieve of Eratosthenes A method of obtaining prime numbers by sifting out multiples of numbers from the set of natural numbers (excluding 1), so the only the prime numbers remain.

Steiner points Junction points located in such a way that they form the shortest network for a given number of points.