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Science and Technology/Engineering
Curriculum Framework - Spring 2001

Earth and Space Science, Grade 9 or 10

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Additional Ideas for Developing Investigations and Learning Experiences and Suggested Extensions to Learning in Technology/Engineering are in Appendix III.

Matter and Energy in the Earth System

Broad Concept: The earth has internal and external sources of energy. The sun is the major external source of energy while the primary sources of internal energy are generated through radioactive decay and gravitational attraction from the earth's original formation.

1.1 Identify the earth's principal sources of internal and external energy, e.g., radioactive decay, gravity, solar energy.

Broad Concept: Two fundamental energy concepts included in the earth system are gravity and electromagnetism.

1.2 Describe the components of the electromagnetic spectrum and give examples of its impact on our lives.
1.3 Describe the characteristics of waves (wavelength, frequency, velocity, amplitude).
1.4 Describe the nature of the continuous emission and absorption spectrum that indicates the composition of stars.

Broad Concept: Global atmospheric processes are driven by energy from the sun, unequal heating between the equator and poles, the earth's rotation and revolution, and the influence of land and water. Human affairs can dramatically influence and be influenced by atmospheric phenomena.

1.5 Explain how the transfer of energy through radiation, conduction, and convection contributes to global atmospheric processes, e.g., storms, winds.*
1.6 Explain how the layers of the atmosphere affect the dispersal of incoming radiation through reflection, absorption, and reradiation.
1.7 Provide examples of how the unequal heating of the earth and the Coriolis Effect influence global circulation patterns, and show their impact on Massachusetts weather and climate, e.g., convection cells, trade winds, westerlies, polar easterlies, land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes.
1.8 Explain how the revolution of the earth and the inclination of the axis of the earth cause the earth's seasonal variations (equinoxes and solstices).*
1.9 Describe how the inclination of the incoming solar radiation can impact the amount of energy received by a given surface area.
1.10 Describe the various conditions associated with frontal boundaries and cyclonic storms (e.g., thunderstorms, winter storms [nor'easters], hurricanes, and tornadoes) and their impact on human affairs, including storm preparations.

Broad Concept: Oceans redistribute matter and energy around the earth, through surface and deepwater currents, tides, waves, and interaction with other earth spheres.

1.11 Explain the dynamics of oceanic currents, including upwelling, density, and deep water currents, the local Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream, and their relationship to global circulation within the marine environment and climate.*
1.12 Describe the effects of longshore currents, storms, and artificial structures (e.g., jetties, sea walls) on coastal erosion in Massachusetts.
1.13 Explain what causes the tides and describe how they affect the coastal environment.

Broad Concept: Scientists use various instruments and methods to investigate the earth as a system.

1.14 Explain how scientists study the earth system through the use of a combination of ground-based observations, satellite observations, and computer models of the earth system, and why it is necessary to use all of these tools together.

Boldface type indicates core standards for full-year courses. An asterisk (*) indicates core standards for integrated courses.

Last Updated: May 1, 2001
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