Science and Technology/Engineering
Earth and Space Science, Grade 9 or 10
Additional Ideas for Developing Investigations and Learning Experiences and Suggested Extensions to Learning in Technology/Engineering are in Appendix III.
Earth Processes and Cycles
Broad Concept: Interactions among the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere have resulted in ongoing evolution of the earth system over geologic time.
|3.1|| Explain that weather is the most significant source of erosion and how both physical and chemical weathering lead to the formation of sediments and soils, affect the shape of rocks, and create specific landscapes depending on what weathering process is dominant under a specific climate.|
|3.2|| Describe how glaciers, gravity, wind, temperature changes, waves, and rivers cause weathering and erosion. Give examples of how the effects of these processes can be seen in our local environment.*|
|3.3 ||Explain the nitrogen and carbon cycles and their roles in the improvement of soils for agriculture.|
|3.4 ||Describe the evolution of the atmosphere.|
|3.5 ||Describe how the oceans store carbon dioxide as dissolved HCO3 and CaCO3 precipitate. Broad Concept: Water is continually being recycled by the hydrologic cycle through the watersheds, oceans, and the atmosphere by processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration. This life-giving cycle is continually and increasingly impacted by human affairs.|
Broad Concept: Water is continually being recycled by the hydrologic cycle through the watersheds, oceans, and the atmosphere by processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration. This life-giving cycle is continually and increasingly impacted by human affairs.
|3.6 ||Explain how water flows into and through a watershed, e.g., aquifers, wells, porosity, permeability, water table, capillary water, runoff. *|
|3.7 ||Compare and contrast the processes of the hydrologic cycle including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater percolation, infiltration, and transpiration.|
Broad Concept: Rocks and minerals are continually being modified within the rock cycle.
|3.8 ||Describe the rock cycle, and the processes that are responsible for the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Compare the physical properties of these rock types.*|
|3.9 ||Compare the physical properties and the mineral combinations found in rocks.|
|3.10 ||Explain how the composition and arrangement of atoms determine a mineral's physical and chemical characteristics.|
Broad Concept: Geologic time can be determined by analyzing rocks and fossils.
|3.11 ||Describe the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time, e.g., index fossils, radioactive dating, law of superposition, and cross-cutting relationships.*|
|3.12 ||Describe the evolution of the solid earth in terms of the major geologic eras. |
Broad Concept: The earth is a system of interacting spherical layers with each layer having distinct characteristic compositions, physical properties, and processes.
|3.13 ||Explain how seismic data is used to reveal the interior structure of the layered earth.|
|3.14 ||Explain how seismic data is used to locate an earthquake epicenter.|
|3.15 ||Recognize the magnitude values of earthquakes as measured by the Richter Scale and give examples of relative damage that would be incurred at each magnitude.|
|3.16 ||Explain how the magnetic field of the earth is produced.|
|3.17 ||Explain how the Van Allen Belts protect the biosphere|
|3.18 ||Explain how paleomagnetic patterns, preserved in rocks, provide evidence of the earth's magnetic field over geologic time.|
Broad Concept: Plate tectonics operating over geologic time have altered the features of land, sea, and mountains by both constructive and destructive processes.
|3.19 ||Trace the development of a lithospheric plate from its growing margin at a divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge) to its destructive margin at a convergent boundary (subduction zone). Explain the relationship between convection currents and the motion of the lithospheric plates.*|
|3.20 ||Relate earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain building, and tectonic uplift to plate movements.|
|3.21 ||Relate the effects of sudden seafloor movements to the generation of tsunamis.|
|3.22 ||Provide examples of how societies have been affected by tectonic activity (e.g., hazards from eruptions and earthquakes, bedrock type and soil conditions, building designs).|
Boldface type indicates core standards for full-year courses. An asterisk (*) indicates core standards for integrated courses.