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# Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework - Spring 2001

## Earth and Space Science, Grade 9 or 10

Additional Ideas for Developing Investigations and Learning Experiences and Suggested Extensions to Learning in Technology/Engineering are in Appendix III.

### The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Broad Concept: The origin of the universe, between 10 and 20 billion years ago, remains one of the greatest questions in science.

 4.1 Explain the Big Bang Theory and discuss the evidence that supports it (background radiation, and Relativistic Doppler effect ~ red shift). 4.2 Define the unit of distance called a light year.

Broad Concept: Gravity influences the formation and life cycles of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, planetary systems, and residual material left from the creation of the solar system. These objects move in regular patterns under the influence of gravity.

 4.3 Use the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram to explain the life histories of stars. 4.4 Compare and contrast the final three outcomes of stellar evolution based on mass (black hole, neutron star, white dwarf).

Broad Concept: Our solar system is composed of a star, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and residual material left from the evolution of the solar system over time.

 4.5 Compare and contrast the motions of rotation and revolution of orbiting bodies, e.g., day, year, solar/lunar eclipses. Describe the influence of gravity and inertia on these motions. 4.6 Explain Kepler's Laws of Motion. 4.7 Compare and contrast the various instrumentation used to study deep space and the solar system, e.g., refracting telescope, reflecting telescope, radio telescope, spectrophotometer. 4.8 Explain how the sun, earth, and solar system formed from a nebula of dust and gas in a spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy about 4.6 billion years ago.*

Boldface type indicates core standards for full-year courses. An asterisk (*) indicates core standards for integrated courses.