[Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) Logo] Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Grade 8 Mathematics Reference Sheet PERIMETER FORMULAS square . . . . . . . . . . .[P equals 4s] rectangle . . . . . . . . .[P equals 2b plus 2h or P equals 2l plus 2w] triangle . . . . . . . . . .[P equals a plus b plus c] AREA FORMULAS square . . . . . . . . . . .[A equals s squared] rectangle . . . . . . . . .[A equals bh or A equals lw] parallelogram . . . . .[A equals bh] triangle . . . . . . . . . .[A equals one half bh] trapezoid . . . . . . . . .[A equals one half h(b subscript 1 plus b subscript 2)] circle . . . . . . . . . . . .[A equals pi sign r squared] TOTAL SURFACE AREA FORMULAS rectangular prism . .[SA equals 2(lw) plus 2(hw) plus 2(lh)] cylinder . . . . . . . . . .[SA equals 2 pi sign r squared plus 2 pi sign rh] sphere . . . . . . . . . . .[SA equals 4 pi sign r squared] VOLUME FORMULAS rectangular prism. . . . . . .[V equals lwh or V equals Bh (B equals area of a base)] cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [V equals s cubed (s equals length of an edge)] cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . .[V equals pi sign r squared h] sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . [V equals four thirds pi sign r cubed] CIRCLE FORMULAS [C equals 2 pi sign r or C equals pi sign d] [A equals pi sign r squared] PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM [right triangle showing the Pythagorean Theorem] [a squared plus b squared equals c squared]