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# Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

## 2013, High School Intro Physics

 Question 23: Open-Response Reporting Category: Motion and ForcesStandard: 2.1 - Interpret and provide examples that illustrate the law of conservation of energy. Standard: 2.2 - Interpret and provide examples of how energy can be converted from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa. A 70 kg person is swinging on a swing set, as shown in the diagram below. Positions X and Z represent the highest points of the person’s motion, and position Y represents the lowest point of the person’s motion.At which position does the person have maximum kinetic energy? Explain your answer.Neglecting friction, describe the energy conversion as the person travels from position X to position Y.The person is 1.0 m above the ground at position Y and 1.5 m above the ground at position Z. Neglecting friction, calculate the change in gravitational potential energy as the person swings from position Y to position Z. Show your calculations and include units in your answer.Neglecting friction, calculate the speed of the person at position Y. Show your calculations and include units in your answer.

### Scoring Guide and Sample Student WorkSelect a score point in the table below to view the sample student response.

ScoreDescription
4 The response demonstrates a thorough understanding of the law of conservation of energy as it applies to an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. The response correctly identifies and clearly explains where the person has maximum kinetic energy, and describes the energy conversion of the person from position X to position Y. The response includes a correct calculation of the change in gravitational potential energy as the person swings from position Y to position Z and the speed of the person at position Y.
4
3
The response demonstrates a general understanding of the law of conservation of energy as it applies to an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.
2
The response demonstrates a limited understanding of the law of conservation of energy as it applies to an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.
1
The response demonstrates a minimal understanding of the law of conservation of energy as it applies to an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.
0 Response is incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.

Note: There are 2 sample student responses for Score Point 4.

Question 12:
Question 23:
Question 32:
Question 44:
Question 45: