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# Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

## 2013, High School Intro Physics

 Question 44: Open-Response Reporting Category: Heat and Heat TransferStandard: 3.3 - Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships between evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming. Standard: 3.4 - Explain the relationship among temperature change in a substance for a given amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance. A student heats a 200 g sample of water from 20°C to 80°C. The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g • °C.Calculate the thermal energy absorbed by the water. Show your calculations and include units in your answer.The student then boils the water.Describe what happens to the temperature of the water as it boils. Explain your answer.The student repeats the experiment, this time placing a small block of iron into another 200 g sample of water. The specific heat of iron is 0.45 J/g • °C. Both the iron and the water are initially at 20°C and are heated to 80°C.Compare the amount of thermal energy absorbed by the water in this experiment with your calculation in part (a). Explain your answer.Describe how repeating the second experiment with a block made of a material with a greater specific heat will affect the amount of time it takes to heat the block. Assume the blocks have the same mass.

### Scoring Guide and Sample Student WorkSelect a score point in the table below to view the sample student response.

ScoreDescription
4 The response demonstrates a thorough understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, temperature change, mass, and specific heat. The response correctly calculates the thermal energy absorbed by the water. The response clearly describes what happens to the temperature of the water as it boils and explains the answer. The response correctly compares the amount of thermal energy absorbed by the water in the first and second experiments and clearly explains the answer. The response also clearly describes how using a material with a greater specific heat will affect the time it takes to heat the block.
4
3
The response demonstrates a general understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, temperature change, mass, and specific heat.
2
The response demonstrates a limited understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, temperature change, mass, and specific heat.
1
The response demonstrates a minimal understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, temperature change, mass, and specific heat.
0 Response is incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.

Note: There are 2 sample student responses for Score Point 4.

Question 12:
Question 23:
Question 32:
Question 44:
Question 45: