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Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

2014, High School Biology

  Question 44: Open-Response  
The inheritance patterns for some traits in guinea pigs are listed in the table below.
TraitDominant AlleleRecessive Allele
hair length   short (H)   long (h)    
hair color   black (B white (b)   
hair texturerough (R)smooth (r)
  1. Identify the phenotype of a guinea pig with the genotype HhBBrr.
  2. Using allele symbols in the table above, identify the genotype of a guinea pig that is recessive for hair length, heterozygous for hair color, and homozygous dominant for hair texture.
Suppose the guinea pigs from parts (a) and (b) are crossed.
  1. Identify the percent of offspring that will have black hair. To support your answer, draw a Punnett square for the hair color trait.
  2. Considering only hair length, identify the expected phenotype ratio of the offspring. Draw a Punnett square to support your answer.

Scoring Guide and Sample Student Work
Select a score point in the table below to view the sample student response.

ScoreDescription
4 The response demonstrates a thorough understanding of how to use a Punnett square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses. The response correctly identifies the phenotype of the first guinea pig and the genotype of the second guinea pig. The response correctly identifies the percent of offspring with black hair and the expected phenotype ratio for hair length in the offspring, and provides correct Punnett squares to support the answers.
4
3 The response demonstrates a general understanding of how to use a Punnett square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses.
2 The response demonstrates a limited understanding of how to use a Punnett square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses.
1 The response demonstrates a minimal understanding of how to use a Punnett square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses.
0 The response is incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.

Note: There are 2 sample student responses for Score Point 4.

High School Biology

Question 12: Ecology
Question 23: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Question 32: Evolution and Biodiversity
Question 44: Genetics
Question 45: Anatomy and Physiology

Return to the MCAS 2014 Student Work Directory



Last Updated: February 8, 2005
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