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# Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

## 2016, High School Intro Physics

 Question 44: Open-Response Reporting Category: Heat and Heat TransferStandard: 3.3 - Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships between evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming. During cold periods, many orange growers repeatedly spray their trees with water to prevent the oranges from freezing. If the air is cold enough, the sprayed water freezes around the oranges, leaving the oranges themselves unfrozen.Identify a measurement tool that orange growers use to measure the average kinetic energy of the air. Describe what happens to the average molecular kinetic energy of the sprayed water as it cools before it freezes. Describe what happens to the average molecular kinetic energy of the sprayed water as it freezes. Explain how the phase change of the sprayed water may protect the oranges from freezing.

### Scoring Guide and Sample Student WorkSelect a score point in the table below to view the sample student response.

ScoreDescription
4 The response demonstrates a thorough understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and phase changes. The response correctly identifies a tool used to measure the average kinetic energy of air. The response also clearly describes how the average kinetic energy of the water changes as it cools and as it freezes, and clearly explains how the sprayed water may protect oranges from freezing.
4
3 The response demonstrates a general understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and phase changes.
2 The response demonstrates a limited understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and phase changes.
1 The response demonstrates a minimal understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and phase changes.
0 The response is incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.

Note: There are 2 sample student responses for Score Point 4.

Question 12:
Question 23:
Question 32:
Question 44:
Question 45: