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# Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

## 2017, High School Intro Physics

 Question 23: Open-Response Reporting Category: Heat and Heat TransferStandard: 3.3 - Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships between evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming. A sample of ice is heated in a closed container. The sample melts and then evaporates. The container is then placed outside on a very cold day. The sample condenses and then freezes. The average molecular kinetic energy of the sample is measured during these changes.Identify the tool used to measure the average molecular kinetic energy of the sample.During which two phase changes does the sample absorb energy?Describe the direction of heat flow between the sample and the air in the container as the sample condenses.Does the sample ever release thermal energy without changing temperature? Explain your answer.

### Scoring Guide and Sample Student WorkSelect a score point in the table below to view the sample student response.

ScoreDescription
4 The response demonstrates a thorough understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature, and that energy is either absorbed or released when a substance undergoes a phase change. The response correctly identifies the tool used to measure the sample’s average molecular kinetic energy. The response correctly identifies two phase changes in which the sample absorbs energy, and clearly describes the direction of heat flow when the sample condenses. The response also clearly explains when the sample releases thermal energy without its temperature changing.
4
3 The response demonstrates a general understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature, and that energy is either absorbed or released when a substance undergoes a phase change.
2 The response demonstrates a limited understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature, and that energy is either absorbed or released when a substance undergoes a phase change.
1 The response demonstrates a minimal understanding of the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature, and that energy is either absorbed or released when a substance undergoes a phase change.
0 The response is incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.

Note: There are 2 sample student responses for Score Point 4.

Question 12:
Question 23:
Question 32:
Question 44:
Question 45: