[Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) Logo] Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Introductory Physics Formula Sheet Formulas Average Speed = d/[Delta]t F = ma p = mv Average Acceleration = [Delta]v/[Delta]t F = G m[1]m[2]/d^2 V = IR Average Velocity = [Delta]x/[Delta]t F = k q[1]q[2]/d^2 P = IV v[f] = v[i] + a [Delta]t KE = [one-half] mv^2 Q = mc[Delta]T [Delta]x = v[i][Delta]t + [one-half] a[Delta]t^2 PE = mg[Delta]h v = f[wavelengh] v[f]^2 = v[i]^2 + 2a[Delta]x W = Fd [wavelength] = [speed of electromagnetic waves]/f Average Velocity = v[i] + v[f]/2 P = W/[Delta]t [period] = 1/f Variables a = acceleration c = specific heat d = distance f = frequency F = force [Delta]h = change in height I = current KE = kinetic energy [wavelength] = wavelength m = mass p = momentum P = power PE = gravitational potential energy q = charge of particle Q = heat R = resistance [Delta]t = change in time [Delta]T = change in temperature [period] = period v = velocity v[i] = initial velocity v[f] = final velocity [Delta]v = change in velocity V = voltage W = work [Delta]x = displacement Definitions [speed of electromagnetic waves] = speed of electromagnetic waves = 3.00 [multiplied by] 10^8 m/s G = Universal gravitational constant = 6.67 [multiplied by] 10^-11 N [multiplied by] m^2/kg^2 k = Coulomb constant = 8.99 [multiplied by] 10^9 N [multiplied by] m^2/C^2 g [equals approximately] 10 m/s^2 1 N = 1 kg [multiplied by] m/s^2 1 J = 1 N [multiplied by] m 1 W(watt) = 1 J/s