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English Language Arts and Literacy | Anchor Standards

 

Reading | Key Ideas and Details

  
R.PK-12.1

Read closely to determine what a text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from a text.
  
R.PK-12.2

Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
  
R.PK-12.3

Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
 

Reading | Craft and Structure

  
R.PK-12.4

Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
  
R.PK-12.5

Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole.
  
R.PK-12.6

Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
 

Reading | Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  
R.PK-12.7

Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. [Note: Please see "Research to Build and Present Knowledge" in Writing and "Comprehension and Collaboration" in Speaking and Listening.]
  
R.PK-12.8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
  
R.PK-12.9

Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
 

Reading | Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  
R.PK-12.10

Independently and proficiently read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts.
 

Writing | Text Types and Purposes

  
W.PK-12.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  
W.PK-12.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  
W.PK-12.3

Write narratives to develop experiences or events using effective literary techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured sequences.
 

Writing | Production and Distribution of Writing

  
W.PK-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  
W.PK-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  
W.PK-12.6

Use technology to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
 

Writing | Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  
W.PK-12.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  
W.PK-12.8

When conducting research, gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
  
W.PK-12.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, interpretation, reflection, and research.
 

Writing | Range of Writing

  
W.PK-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
 

Speaking and Listening | Comprehension and Collaboration

  
SL.PK-12.1

Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
  
SL.PK-12.2

Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  
SL.PK-12.3

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
 

Speaking and Listening | Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

  
SL.K-12.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that
  • listeners can follow the line of reasoning
  • the organization, development, vocabulary, and style are appropriate to an audience.
  
SL.PK-12.5

Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
  
SL.PK-12.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
 

Language | Conventions of Standard English

  
L.PK-12.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  
L.PK-12.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
 

Language | Knowledge of Language

  
L.PK-12.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
 

Language | Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  
L.PK-12.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
  
L.PK-12.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  
L.PK-12.6

Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge.

English Language Arts and Literacy | K

 

Reading Literature | Key Ideas and Details

  
RL.K.1

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  
RL.K.2

With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
  
RL.K.3

With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
 

Reading Literature | Craft and Structure

  
RL.K.4

Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (See kindergarten Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
  
RL.K.5

Recognize common types of texts and characteristics of their structure (e.g., story elements in books; rhyme, rhythm, and repetition in poems).
  
RL.K.6

With prompting and support, explain that reading the cover or title page is how to find out who created a book; name the author and illustrator of a book and define the role of each in telling the story.
 

Reading Literature | Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  
RL.K.7

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
  
RL.K.8

(Not applicable.)
  
RL.K.9

With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.
 

Reading Literature | Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  
RL.K.10

Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
 

Reading Informational Text | Key Ideas and Details

  
RI.K.1

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  
RI.K.2

With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  
RI.K.3

With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
 

Reading Informational Text | Craft and Structure

  
RI.K.4

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (See kindergarten Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
  
RI.K.5

Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
  
RI.K.6

Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.
 

Reading Informational Text | Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  
RI.K.7

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
  
RI.K.8

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  
RI.K.9

With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
 

Reading Informational Text | Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  
RI.K.10

Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
 

Reading Foundational Skills | Print Concepts

  
RF.K.1

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  
RF.K.1.a

Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
  
RF.K.1.b

Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
  
RF.K.1.c

Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
  
RF.K.1.d

Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
 

Reading Foundational Skills | Phonological Awareness

  
RF.K.2

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
  
RF.K.2.a

Recognize and produce rhyming words.
  
RF.K.2.b

Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
  
RF.K.2.c

Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
  
RF.K.2.d

Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/,or /x/.) [Note: Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/ refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.]
  
RF.K.2.e

Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
 

Reading Foundational Skills | Phonics and Word Recognition

  
RF.K.3

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  
RF.K.3.a

Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
  
RF.K.3.b

Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
  
RF.K.3.c

Read common high-frequency words by sight. (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
  
RF.K.3d

Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
 

Reading Foundational Skills | Fluency

  
RF.K.4

Read early-emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.
 

Standards | Text Types and Purposes

  
W.K.1

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is
  
W.K.2

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts that name and supply some information about a topic.
  
W.K.3

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or experience, or several loosely linked events or experiences; sequence the narrative appropriately and provide a reaction to what happened.
  
W.K.3.a

For poems, use rhyming words to create structures (See kindergarten Reading Foundational Skills Standard 2a.)
 

Standards | Production and Distribution of Writing

  
W.K.5

With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  
W.K.5.b

Demonstrate the ability to use vocabulary appropriate for kindergarten (as described in kindergarten Language standards 4-6).
  
W.K.6

With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
 

Standards | Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  
W.K.7

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
  
W.K.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
 

Standards | Range of Writing

  
W.K.10

Write or dictate writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
 

Speaking and Listening | Comprehension and Collaboration

  
SL.K.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  
SL.K.1.a

Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
  
SL.K.1.b

Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
  
SL.K.2

Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
  
SL.K.3

Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
 

Speaking and Listening | Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

  
SL.K.4

Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
  
SL.K.5

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  
SL.K.6

Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.
 

Language | Conventions of Standard English

  
L.K.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; retain and further develop language skills learned previously.
  
L.K.1.a

Sentence Structure and Meaning - Demonstrate the ability to produce and expand complete sentences, using frequently occurring nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, question words, and prepositions; name and use in context numbers 0-100 (see kindergarten mat
  
L.K.1.b

Sentence Structure and Meaning - Form questions that seek additional information, rather than a simple yes/no answer.
  
L.K.1.c

Word Usage - Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/.
  
L.K.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  
L.K.2.a

Print upper- and lowercase letters.
  
L.K.2.b

Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
  
L.K.2.c

Recognize and name end punctuation.
  
L.K.2.d

Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
  
L.K.2.e

Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
  
L.K.2.f

Write numbers 0-20 (see kindergarten mathematics standards for Counting and Cardinality).
 

Language | Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  
L.K.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
  
L.K.4.a

Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
  
L.K.5

With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  
L.K.5.a

Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  
L.K.5.b

Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
  
L.K.5.c

Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
  
L.K.5.d

Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
  
L.K.6

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, activities in the kindergarten curriculum, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

Last Updated: June 12, 2024

 
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