Students experiencing reading difficulties, or at risk of future difficulties, typically have trouble with fluent word reading and/or with comprehension. Problems with fluent word reading also contribute to comprehension difficulties
Underlying causes of difficulties with fluent word reading
Underlying causes of difficulties with comprehension
How do we understand individual students' reading strengths and needs, including the underlying causes of reading difficulties?
How do we group students and prepare instruction targeted at their needs?
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
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